Sweden Industry

Sweden Industry and Mines

Europe

Fishing. – Fishing no longer has, in relation to other bases of economic life, the great importance it once had for the population, in the past scarce and scattered over a vast territory; however it still represents a considerable source of income today. Its income is, as a result of improved fishing methods and higher fish prices, overall higher than it has ever been in the past.

According to collegesanduniversitiesinusa, Herring (Clupea harengus and ClHarengus var. Membras L., the smaller variety that is located in the Baltic), is the most important fish in the Swedish fishing industry. The herring fishing in Bohus deserves special attention. Until the end of the past century, herring fishing was in län Gothenburg and Bohus. Around 1880 an important herring fishing establishment with floating nets arose in the southernmost parts of the Halland län. Herring is also caught around the island of Gotland during the summer. From the cod family (Gadidae), cod, hake, whiting and Malva vulgaris are profitable.and the gado corbonaio. Of the pleuronectids, the common sole is the most important for fishing. Lobster is only caught on the west coast, eel and salmon are found in both fresh and salty waters. Sweden has about 40 salmon-rich rivers, with an overall length of 9000 kilometers; the most productive are the Ångerman, the Indal, the lower course of the Dal, the Lagan, the Ätran, the Göta, etc. The fishing of pike, perch, zander, carp and others which make up the majority of inland waters fisheries is far greater economic importance than that of salmon fishing.

In 1933, fishing was exercised as an exclusive occupation by 13,414 people, and as a secondary occupation by another 10,176 people. The Gothenburg and Bohus Län have the largest number of professional fishermen, ie 44.5% of the total. The total product of fishing in 1933 was calculated at 102,306 tons, of which 100,431 of fish and 1875 of crustaceans. More than half of the catch consists of large and small herring. The fishing had in 1933 a value, in round figures, of 25 million crowns.

Mines. – Mining is an ancient industry in Sweden and has played a prominent role in the country’s economic life. The reason must be sought in the rich and easily accessible mineral resources, in the rich heritage of forests, which provided coal, and in the abundance of easily exploitable hydraulic power. During the sec. The Falun Copper Mine was the largest supplier in the world (in 1650 it supplied 3088 tons of raw copper) and during the 17th century. XVIII Sweden was in first place among the iron producing countries (in 1740 it supplied 40% of all the crude iron produced in the world at that time) . This position could not be maintained for long. Today Sweden has to import around 20,000 tons of copper a year. The iron industry, which today produces only about 3 million tons of ore, has been increasingly transformed into the production of qualitative materials, especially steel and machines. An excessive production of iron ore during the first twenty years of the century. XX has indeed led to an accumulation of unused ore and these reserves have just now begun to decline. Sweden contributes 520,000 tons to the world’s crude iron production. (1934), in the production of steel for 860,000 (1934). Swedish iron ores consist of magnetite, hematite or both, and are found mainly in northern Norrland and the so-called bergslagen average Sweden. Norrland iron ores have a very high percentage (60-70%) of metal, but are generally high in phosphorus (1-3%). Those of the average Sweden are poorer, but on the other hand they are almost free of phosphorus, excluding those of Grängesberg which have about 1% of it. Norrland minerals have only been mined in large quantities since the end of the 13th century. XIX; now they give ¾ of the production of iron. Almost all of the iron production from the Norrland mines is exported, via Narvik in Norway or via Luleå on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia. The minerals from the Bergslagen in central Sweden have been exploited since the early Middle Ages. Sweden’s stock of iron material is estimated at 2.5 billion tons, of which about ¾ in Norrland, where the important deposits of Kiruna, Luossa and Gällivare. The most important mines in central Sweden are those of Grängesberg. While the ore is mostly exported, large quantities of raw iron are imported, which often come from Swedish ore (50-100,000 tons per year, about the same amount as export). The reason for this phenomenon is to be found in the fact that Sweden has no hard coal. Charcoal and hydraulic power, in the form of electricity, cannot replace hard coal in the current state of industry. which often come from Swedish ore (50-100,000 tons per year, about the same amount as export). The reason for this phenomenon is to be found in the fact that Sweden has no hard coal. Charcoal and hydraulic power, in the form of electricity, cannot replace hard coal in the current state of industry. which often come from Swedish ore (50-100,000 tons per year, about the same amount as export). The reason for this phenomenon is to be found in the fact that Sweden has no hard coal. Charcoal and hydraulic power, in the form of electricity, cannot replace hard coal in the current state of industry.

Among other minerals, after the discovery in 1932 of the so-called “meteorite field”, the gold ore holds the first place. In 1933, up to 366,000 tons were extracted, from which 4228 kilos of gold were extracted in Rönnskär. The import of gold was reduced by more than 75% compared to 1931 (in 1931, 870 kg., In 1933, 176 kg.). Only about 12,000 tons of silver ore and lead are mined, of which only 7.6 tons of silver were processed in 1933. Lead and zinc were not mined in Sweden in recent years, but their ore was exported instead. Zinc – only zinc sulphide – comes especially from the Ämmeberg mines and is extracted in the amount of about 50,000 tons per year. Only insignificant quantities of copper are extracted; on the other hand, large masses of pyrite are extracted, especially in the copper mine of Falun, which are used mainly for the preparation of sulfuric acid and English red. About 350,000 tons of hard coal are extracted annually in Scania, which however only cover 7% of the country’s needs; fossil coal deposits also give refractory clay: in fact they occur in horizontal layers alternating with refractory clay deposits. The quarrying industry – production of paving stones, squared stones and boulders, stone processing and liming – has been in decline since the end of 1920. sulfuric acid and English red. About 350,000 tons of hard coal are extracted annually in Scania, which however only cover 7% of the country’s needs; fossil coal deposits also give refractory clay: in fact they occur in horizontal layers alternating with refractory clay deposits. The quarrying industry – production of paving stones, squared stones and boulders, stone processing and liming – has been in decline since the end of 1920. sulfuric acid and English red. About 350,000 tons of hard coal are extracted annually in Scania, which however only cover 7% of the country’s needs; fossil coal deposits also give refractory clay: in fact they occur in horizontal layers alternating with refractory clay deposits. The quarrying industry – production of paving stones, squared stones and boulders, stone processing and liming – has been in decline since the end of 1920.

Industry. – From an industrial point of view, Sweden can be divided into three regions. The southern one, which extends almost to the southern edge of the great lakes of Väner, Vätter, Mälar and Hjälmar, is especially distinguished by advanced agriculture, alongside which a considerable industry has developed, both in branches connected with agriculture (mills, sugar refineries, distilleries) as well as in other branches (brick, concrete, matches, glass, textiles, etc.). In central Sweden the mining industry (Grängesberg and others) with the related metal and machine working (Stockholm, Eskilstuna, Västerås, Kristinehamn and others) form, together with agriculture, the main resource. Raw iron and steels are produced especially in Sandviken, Domnarvet, Uddeholm and Fagersta. In northern Sweden the agriculture is overtaken by large forestry industry (Sundsvall, etc.), and in the far north (Lapland) by mining (Kiruna-Luossa); agriculture, however, has advanced very far in the great river valleys of Norrland.

In the century XVIII Sweden was, as we have said, the largest producer of raw iron in Europe, until hard coal began to be used for the extraction of iron. The extraction of iron ore, which in 1830-40 was only about 0.25 million tons, increased, when the mines of Grängesberg and Lapland were exploited, to a maximum, in 1929, of 11.47 million tons. The exploitation of the rich Skellefte field in Västerbotten has recently begun. Especially known is the meteorite found in that field, from which a considerable amount of gold is also extracted. Swedish industry comprised the following main groups in 1934:

What mainly characterizes the Swedish industry is the use of a perfect material and careful workmanship. Cannons, light fixtures, telephone supplies, motors and many varieties of electrical machines and appliances are some of the specialized products of metallurgy. In addition, the porcelain factory of Gustavberg and Kosta and the glassworks of Orrefors have made a good name in the world market.

Sweden Industry