Romania Between 1930 and 1938

Romania Between 1930 and 1938

Europe

From the return to Romania of Prince Carol, who became king with the name of Charles II, to date, the personality of the sovereign has influenced Romanian politics more and more every day. The eight years that have passed so far (1930-38) have been full of disturbances in domestic politics and uncertainties in foreign politics; all aggravated by a serious economic and financial crisis. The Maniu ministry remained in office even after the coming to the throne of King Carol, but soon disagreements arose between the sovereign and the prime minister, which forced Maniu to resign. A ministry followed with Mironescu at the head who remained in office for a few months; on April 4, 1931, Mironescu resigned and on April 18 the sovereign entrusted the presidency of the council to a high personality who, despite being the head of a party, could be considered above the parties, to the historian Nicola Iorga (v. XIX, p. 460 ff.). On April 30, Iorga dissolved the chambers, and the elections of June 10 gave a considerable majority to the government. Iorga’s program was one of national union, with the collaboration of ethnic minorities; in foreign policy there was a rapprochement with Bulgaria. But the internal financial situation plummeted, even leading to considerable delays in the salaries and pensions of state officials, and so on May 31, 1932 the Iorga ministry resigned.

According to top-mba-universities, on 15 June Vaida Voevod was appointed prime minister who called new elections in which the national-peasant party obtained a considerable majority. But this ministry also had an ephemeral life and on 10 October it was replaced by a ministry headed by Maniu and the Fsteri Titulescu. The various ministries that followed one another in the period 1932-36, despite having different personalities at the presidency, were all characterized by the presence of Titulescu at the Foreign Office; Titulescu’s foreign policy, despite its fluctuations, its uncertainties, its often covered and obscure minds, pursued two goals: the ever closer friendship with France and especially with the left parties, and the rapprochement with Russia Soviet. In fact, on 5 July 1933 a non-aggression pact with the USSR was concluded,

On December 29, 1933, the Duke was killed, who had been appointed president of the council since December 14; this killing, for which the nationalist party of the “Iron Guards” was rumored to be responsible, caused great turmoil in the country, so that a state of siege was proclaimed. After a brief Angelescu ministry, the presidency of the council was entrusted to Tatarescu, but always with Titulescu for Foreign Affairs. In this period, Romanian politics moved further and further away from Fascist Italy, due to the left tendencies of Titulescu; thus on June 18, 1934, the Italo-Romanian treaty of mutual understanding and cordial collaboration that had been signed on July 18, 1927 expired without any attempt to extend it.

On 29 August 1936 the sovereign formed a new Tatarescu ministry, but this time without Titulescu to Foreign Affairs; in November 1937 there was a new Tatarescu ministry, but of ephemeral life. At the beginning of January 1938 the situation of the Tatarescu cabinet had become unsustainable and the sovereign entrusted the presidency of the council to the poet and politician Ottaviano Goga (who died in Budapest on 7 May 1938) who formed a ministry of the national Christian party, with the support of the national peasant party. The government’s program was one of national restoration on an authoritarian basis; a violent racist campaign, especially anti-Semitic, was also included in the program. In foreign policy there was an approach to Italy and Germany. But the life of the Goga cabinet was very short; very serious financial difficulties forced the cabinet to resign on 10 February. The sovereign then formed a cabinet of national union, under the presidency of the very old patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church Miron Cristea and with all the former presidents of the council (except Goga and Maniu who refused) as ministers without portfolios. On March 30 this ministry resigned; immediately afterwards a new cabinet was established, always under the presidency of Patriarch Miron Cristea.

On February 27, 1938, a new constitution was published (see below) approved almost unanimously by the plebiscite of February 24 and solemnly proclaimed on February 27. The political parties were dissolved, but in April the government arrested Codreanu, head of the nationalist party “All for the Fatherland” (ex-Iron Guards) accusing him of serious charges. On May 27, Codreanu was sentenced to 10 years of forced labor for treason. On July 18, the queen mother, Maria, died in Sinaia.

Romania Between 1930 and 1938