Ohio History

Ohio History

North America

According to ebizdir, Ohio is a state in the United States bordering the states of Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Indiana to the west, Kentucky to the south, and West Virginia to the southeast. Columbus is the state capital and most populous city, while other major cities are Cleveland, Toledo and Cincinnati.

TIMELINE:

1754-63 – Ohio Valley was the site of the last of four major colonial wars between Britain and France. Unlike previous wars, it began on American soil and later spread to Europe. Britain’s official declaration of war came in 1756, which came to mark the start of the Seven Years’ War.

1776 – The city of Cleveland is founded.

1778-79 – In Ohio Country and Illinois Country, the pioneer George Rogers Clark of Virginia tried to neutralize British influence among the Ohio tribes by conquering the outposts of Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the summer of 1778. When General Henry Hamilton, the British commander in Detroit, recaptured Vincennes, turned Clark back with a surprising rise in February 1779 and took Hamilton to catch.

1788 – The first permanent white settlement is established in Marietta. Later excavations revealed the ceremonial site of the Hopewell culture where the city was today brewed. Marietta Earthworks is the official archeological site where you can come and look at the interesting structures.

1790-94 – A series of Native American wars take place during this period. The following year, the Indians relinquished most of their land when they signed the Greenville Treaty.

1796 – The city of Dayton is founded on April 1, and named after the politician and revolutionary Jonathan Dayton in 1805 as a tribute.

1800 – Chillicothe became the first (1803-10) and third (1812-16) capital of Ohio, located along the Scotio River.

1803 – Ohio is incorporated into the United States as the 17th state on March 1.

1810-12 – Zanesville briefly becomes the state capital. When the state’s current capital, Columbus (named after Christopher Columbus ) was established, Fort Meigs was built to protect Ohio from invasion during the British-American War.

1812-15 – The British-American War is fought between the United States and Britain and its colonies in Canada. The battles took place on land and at sea in East and Central North America, the Gulf Coast, the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

1816 – The capital is moved back to Columbus.

1833 – The city of Toledo is founded.

1834 – The Anti-Slavery Society is founded in Zanesville.

1835-36 – Ohio waged the Toledo War against Michigan territory for control of the city of Toledo. After the intervention of Congress, the so-called Toledo Strip passed to Ohio.

1841 – On March 4, William Henry Harrison becomes the 9th President of the United States. He was the oldest elected president (68 years) until Ronald Reagan in 1981 (70 years), and the last president born before the United States Declaration of Independence. He died on his 32nd day as president – the shortest period as president of the United States in history.

1842 – Ohio’s last Native American tribe, the Wyandots, relinquishes all rights to their territories in the state and then leaves.

1852 – Release of ” Uncle Tom’s Cottage “, written in Ohio by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The book caused a fierce public debate, thereby contributing to the later abolition of slavery in North America. It was a contributing factor to the Confederacy started the American Civil War by opening fire on Fort Sumter April 12, 1861.

1859 – In an attempt to put an end to slavery, abolitionist John Brown leads an attack on the federal arms depot at Harper’s Ferry in West Virginia.

1863 – ” Morgan’s Raid ” was the Confederate General John Hunt Morgan’s marathon attack from July 11-26, when he and his men rode over 500km for 46 days from Tennessee to northern Ohio, before their luck ran out when 700 of his men were captured at Buffington Island. Only 200 reached away. On July 26, near Salineville, Morgan and his starving and exhausted soldiers were forced to give up.

1869 – On March 4, Ulysses S. Grant is installed as the 18th President of the United States. Grant himself was an honest but naive man, but he tolerated both financial and political corruption among his top advisers – and protected them when they were revealed. In 1873, the United States was hit by an economic crisis that Grant did nothing to alleviate. In comparisons between U.S. presidents over time, Grant usually ranks in the worst quarter. In his final years, he wrote his memoirs, and finished shortly before he died of cancer in 1885, aged 63 in Mount McGregor, NY.

1876 – On December 29, a 159-passenger train derailed at a bridge over the Ashtabula River and fell into the deep snow of the river as the bridge gave way under the train. There was a fire in the wooden carriages when the stoves were ignited, but nothing was done to put out the fire. The accident killed 92 people, including gospel singer Phillip Bliss and his wife. This was the worst train accident until the accident in Nashville, TN on July 9, 1918.

1877 – Rutherford B. Hayes becomes the 19th President of the United States on March 4, 1881.

1878 – The first cash register was invented and developed by James Ritty, a Saloon owner who was tired of his employees putting customers’ money in their own pockets. So therefore he had to find a solution, and was inspired by a counter on a steamboat on its way to Europe. When he returned home to Dayton, he immediately set about inventing an apparatus, which he patented in 1879. Read more here.

1879 – Inventor Thomas Edison developed an improvement on the electric light bulb; Cleveland became the first city to be illuminated by arc lamps ; National Cash Register Co. was founded in Dayton.

1881 – James A. Garfield is installed as the 20th President of the United States. However, his career was cut short when, three months into the period, he was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau, who had been refused the U.S. ambassador to France. Guiteau was also unhappy that Garfield would not keep a promise he had made that the finance minister post would go to a prominent New Yorker. Garfield hovered between life and death for several months while doctors desperately tried to locate a pistol bullet that had drilled into his body. Garfield died September 19, 1881, from blood poisoning, presumably caused by the sterile instruments which had been used. Guiteau was later hanged for the murder, but there were rumors both within the party and in the country as a whole that he was not alone in the murder.

1884 – The riots in Cincinnati take place over three days from Friday, March 28, to Sunday, March 30, when a group of men go berserk over a wrongful verdict in court. Over the following days, 50 people were killed, 139 wounded, and the courtroom was destroyed. It was one of the most destructive riots in America.

1888 – Benjamin Harrison became America’s 23rd president. He was the grandson of William Henry Harrison, the 9th president. Harrison lost to Grover Cleveland in the next presidential election in 1892 because Harrison’s government had spent over $ 1 billion on his office, and people were tired of the high consumption. Harrison died of influenza on March 13, 1901.

1887 – William McKinley becomes the 25th President of the United States. He won the presidential election in both 1896 and 1900. McKinley was shot and life-threateningly wounded by Leon Czolgosz on September 8, 1901. He died of his injuries on September 14, 1901.

1903-05 – The Wright brothers built and test flew their Wright Flyer III on a piece of Huffman’s Prairie, July 23, where the Wright-Patterson AFB would later be built.

1908 – A violent fire breaks out at Lakeview School in Collinwood on March 4 on the outskirts of Cleveland. Because the school was built of wood, the building was quickly surrounded by flames, and all exits were blocked by fire and smoke. The result was the worst tragedy in Ohio’s history when a total of 173 children, two teachers and a rescuer died in the fire.

1909-13 – William Howard Taft became America’s 27th president. He later became President of the United States Supreme Court (1921-30) until shortly before his death, and is thus the only person to have held both positions. He died barely a month after retiring, on March 8, 1930.

1913 – A flood in Ohio in March causes 428 deaths and total destruction of Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, New York and Pennsylvania. Read here and here.

1917 – Wright-Patterson Air Force Base opens east of Dayton, Greene and Montgomery counties. Wright-Patterson AFB was first established in 1948 as a merger of Patterson and Wright Fields. The base is the largest air defense base in the United States ; Camp Sherman was established near Chillicothe and used as a training camp for soldiers participating in WWI.

1918 – 1200 troops die during the flu epidemic in Camp Sherman. Read more here and here.

1921 – Warren G. Harding became America’s 29th president. He reached the post only 2 years before he died of either cardiac arrest or a stroke on August 2, 1923, during a visit to California.

1925 – The USS Shenandoah is the first of four U.S. Navy airships at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, with its first flight in 1923. On its 57th flight, the USS Shenandoah was torn to pieces by the storm over Ohio on September 3rd.

1930 – Ohio Penitentiary is a prison located in Columbus, in what is now known as the Arena District. The conditions in the prison are described as being “primitive”, and that was probably one of the reasons why it went wrong on April 21, when a huge fire broke out and killed 322 prisoners locked inside their cells, and 150 were injured, and made it the worst disaster in an American prison. The prison was closed in 1984 and stood empty for some years after, but was demolished in 1995. Nationwide Arena opened in 2000 on the site of the prison’s car park.

1937 – The Ohio River was flooded in late January and February and was so severe that more than 1 million people became homeless, 385 died with more than $ 500 million in injuries. The government’s resources were on the verge of being too little for help when it happened during the ” Depression “.

1938 – On the morning of April 6, chemist Roy J. Plunkett and his assistant discovered Teflon by chance. Plunkett was not late in discovering its possibilities. Teflon is extremely heat-repellent and has an extremely smooth surface. The product was first marketed in 1946.

1944 – A violent explosion on October 20 at East Ohio Gas Co. in Cleveland killed 131 employees. Read more here and here.

1946 – In July, George “Bugsy” Moran was arrested for the robbery of a bank, sentenced to 10 years in prison for serving time in the Ohio Penitentiary. When he was released, it was not long before he was again arrested for a robbery in Ansonia on November 8, 1956, and sent to the Leavensworth Federal Penitentiary on January 11, 1957 for another 10 years in prison. On February 25, 1957, he died of lung cancer, aged 65 years.

1947 – UFO MYTH: Project Sign was Wright-Patterson AFB’s T-2 intelligence investigation of unidentified flying objects (UFOs), beginning in July. Later, Project Grudge took over in 1949 and Project Blue Book in 1952.

1954 – Dr. Samuel Sheppard was convicted of the brutal murder of his pregnant wife, Marilyn, at their home in Bay Village. He spent nearly 10 years behind bars, mostly in the Ohio Penitentiary, before getting a new trial, where he was acquitted in 1966. Until his death, he maintained his innocence in the murder. The controversial lawsuit in 1954, inspired a television series running under the name ” The Fugitive ” from 1963-67, and a movie of the same name in 1993. In 2000, his son Sam Reese Sheppard sued the state for his father’s alleged wrongful imprisonment, but a civil jury returned a unanimous verdict that the son could not prove the wrongful imprisonment.

1962 – On February 20, New Concord- born astronaut John Glenn becomes the third American in space and the first non-Russian to orbit the Mercury capsule Friendship 7. He is also the oldest human (77 years old) to have been in space. space, when in 1998, after passing the health tests, he was approved for a trip with the space shuttle Discovery. Read more about the Mercury program here.

1966 – UFO MYTH: A UFO was reportedly seen over Zanesville by barber Ralph Ditter. The images were quickly spread around the country and the world, and were even published in various magazines, such as Mechanics Illustrated. But it later turned out to be a hoax when, 5 years later, he admitted that the UFO was nothing more than a wheel capsule. The reason he did so was because he had promised his daughter to take a picture of a UFO if he ever saw one. Read more here.

1969 – Astronaut Neil Armstrong (from Wapakoneta ) becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon on July 20. Armstrong was married and had three children. He lived his final years in Cincinnati, Ohio. He died on August 25, 2012 of complications following heart surgery.

1970 – Four Kent State University students are shot and killed by the U.S. National Guard during the May 4 demonstration in Vietnam. Nine others were injured. The demonstration was a protest against President Nixon’s escalation of the Vietnam War, and after the attack, higher education in the United States was paralyzed by strikes and demonstrations. Ten days later, two black students at Jackson State University in Mississippi were killed during a similar protest.

1974 – The ” Super tornado eruption ” took place over 24 hours on 3-4. April in Ohio. An F5 tornado cut right through the city of Xenia on April 3, killing 34 people, injuring 1,150, smashing half of the city’s buildings and leaving about 10,000 homeless. As many as 148 tornadoes were counted and confirmed in a total of 13 states and in Ontario in Canada. In total, claims costs exceeded $ 600 million. At one point, there were a total of 15 tornadoes going on at the same time.

1983 – The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was established in Cleveland on April 20 by Ahmet Ertegun, the founder of Atlantic Records. The foundation is dedicated to archiving the best known and most influential artists, producers, technicians, etc. who have made a great impression on the music industry. The inauguration took place on June 7, 1993 with Pete Townshend and Chuck Berry as guests of honor. The museum opened on September 2, 1995 in a building designed by architect IM Pei, and after much discussion about the location, it ended up being located on the shores of Lake Erie in Cleveland, close toGreat Lakes Science Center and Cleveland Browns Stadium.

1986 – Astronaut Judith Resnik (from Akron ) is killed on January 28 in the Challenger accident.

1993 – On April 11, riots break out in the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, where 450 inmates and members of the Aryan Brotherhood and Gangster Disciples band together in an otherwise unlikely alliance and occupy the jail for 11 days. The reason for the uprising was because the prison was crowded and the Muslims were forced to get vaccinations despite their religious beliefs against that kind. Read a chronological overview of the 11 days here. See pictures here.

2001 – After the terrorist attacks in New York on September 11, Ohio began to secure the state in a series of anti-terrorist actions.

2003 – A huge power outage in Cleveland resulted in over 50 million. did not have power.

2010 – Three pension funds sue American International Group for fraud, resulting in AIG being fined $ 725 million.

2011 – Exotic animals are released from a privately owned zoo in Zanesville, after which the owner commits suicide. Bears, lions, tigers and wolves were among the animals that fled. Police had to kill dozens of the animals, those captured were transferred to the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium.

2012 -On February 27, the student Tj. Lane fire in the cafeteria at Chardon High School, killed three and injured two students.

On March 17, 2012, John Demjanjuk died in Bad Feilnback, Germany, aged 91 years. He was one of the most wanted WWII war criminals who was a soldier in the Red Army until 1942 when he was captured by the Germans. In his captivity he went into German service and worked as a guard in the Nazi death camps, i.a. in the Treblinka concentration camp, where he became known as ” Ivan the Terrible “, and later to be a guard in, among other places, Sobibor in 1945. He lived in Seven Hills in Cleveland from 1952 until he was deprived of his American citizenship in 2002. Read more her.

On June 29-30, tornadoes killed at least three people in the state. The governor declared a state of emergency.

Ohio History