Lebanese landscape

Lebanon Geography


The Lebanon is divided into four geographical landscapes divided, which, composed of a narrow coastal plain Mount Lebanon, the Bekaa Valley and the Anti-Lebanon. The coastal strip stretches along the Mediterranean Sea for 225 km and is less than 10 km wide. The foothills of the Lebanon Mountains reach as far as the Mediterranean Sea and reach a height of 3000 meters not far from the coast. The Antilebanon runs parallel to the Lebanon Mountains with an altitude of up to 2800 meters. Between the two mountain ranges there are numerous plateaus. The best known is the Bekaa plain, which is 160 km long and between 10 and 16 km wide. Although Lebanon is assigned to the subtropical Mediterranean climate, the country has different climates due to the north-south course of the mountain chains. On the coast, summers are hot and humid and winters are cool and humid. Meanwhile, the Bekaa plain is more of a continental part, very hot and dry in summer and very cold and poor in snow in winter. The mountain ranges are very rich in water, snow-covered in winter and relatively cool in summer. These weather differences have a corresponding effect on fauna and flora. There are cedar forests in the Lebanon Mountainsat home, but due to the centuries of logging, bushes and grasses spread, and in large parts of the country is affected by desertification despite its geographical location and large water resources.

Coastal strip:

According to topb2bwebsites, the Lebanese coast is partly sandy partly characterized by rocks. The most important cities in the country, most of which were founded by the Phoenicians, are located on the coast. These include Beirut, Sidon, Tyros, Byblos and Tripoli. So this 10 km wide strip is very densely populated. In the southern coastal area, citrus and banana groves dominate the landscape, but the surrounding settlements are growing incessantly, which has a devastating effect on the environment.

Lebanon Mountains:

Jabal Lubnan is a long mountain range that runs parallel to the coast. Its highest peak and highest point in Lebanon is Qornet al-Sawda with 3,088 m. In the middle part of the mountain range is the second highest mountain in Lebanon at 2628m, Jabal Sannine, which is a popular ski area in winter. The Lebanon Mountains slowly flatter towards the south, and then merge south of Nabatiyeh into the hill country of southern Lebanon. The scenic features of the Lebanon Mountains that are worth mentioning include the Qadisha Valley and the extensive high mountain plateaus.

Bekaa level:

The Bekaa Plain is framed by the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains. It runs 160 km parallel to both mountain ranges and is between 10 and 16 km wide. The Litani River crosses the plain and makes it particularly fertile. Accordingly, this level is the breadbasket of the country.

Lebanese landscape

Ecological problems

Uncontrolled urban development and the war are increasingly destroying Lebanon’s environment. In addition, the lack of sensitivity to the environment and rampant nature theft caused by quarries, urban development and illegal logging have devastated the country’s ecology.

Serious environmental damage is also caused by the use of agricultural fertilizers, weed and insecticides, and the unsolved garbage and sewage treatment problems. Experts assume that a large part of the Lebanese groundwater is contaminated as a result. In addition to industry and agriculture, private households are also involved in water pollution. Large cities in particular lack adequate provisions for the collection and treatment of pollutants and waste. As a result, wastewater enters the rivers untreated.

The air in metropolitan areas such as the Beirut metropolitan area is heavily polluted by car and generator emissions. Since Lebanon does not have a well-developed public transport system, the number of registered cars is increasing rapidly, with the corresponding consequences for the environment. This effect is reinforced by the fact that most of the energy in Lebanon is produced from fossil fuels. A garbage crisis has raged in Lebanon since 2015. In Lebanon, there is no single waste management strategy that applies to the whole country. According to a study by the American University in Beirut, 77 percent of Lebanon’s garbage is either openly dumped or landfilled, although only an estimated 10 to 12 percent of it cannot be recycled or composted.

The environmental situation in Lebanon is alarming. Overall, it can be said that the country is constantly over-exploiting its resources through the excessive use of land. The forests are shrinking rapidly. Piles of rubbish and wasteful use of water and energy literally destroy the ecology of the country and in the long run prevent any development opportunities for Lebanon. Lebanon’s biodiversity – its flora and fauna – is threatened by hunters, quarries, buildings and the use of weed and insecticides and chemical fertilizers in the agricultural sector. Other sources of danger are the toxic industrial wastewater that is discharged into the sea or rivers and the industrial exhaust gases that pollute the air. Industrial hazardous and toxic waste is dumped in landfills without control, which contaminates the earth and the groundwater reservoir. The sea and the coast are being used as landfills for household and industrial waste. Swimming and fishing are health risks on many coastlines.

The Lebanon is one of the regions that strongly influenced by climate change are concerned. Higher temperatures and less precipitation have a major impact on the formation of new groundwater and the associated water supply for the population. The current changes in the climate are threatening the country’s cedars and, in the worst case, could turn large parts of Lebanon into a desert.

The water level of the Mediterranean could rise by half a meter to one meter by 2040. This would be catastrophic for Lebanon, because the country’s four largest cities are located on the coast. About 85% of the Lebanese live there. In addition, almost the entire economic output of the country is produced in the coastal cities.

The Lebanese Ministry of the Environment reports annually on the country’s situation with regard to environmental and environmental protection measures.