Greece Economy

Greece Economy

Europe

ECONOMY: AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHING

The Greek economy, until the last decades of the twentieth century, depended almost exclusively on agriculture, despite the unfavorable climatic and pedological conditions of the country. The Greek territory is, in fact, largely mountainous, large areas are degraded by erosion, and rainfall is scarce almost everywhere; to this is added the lack of adequate irrigation systems (approx. one fifth of the arable land is irrigated) and the fragmentation of the funds, especially in mountainous areas, which constitutes a serious obstacle to the use of modern agricultural techniques. However, fruit and vegetable and industrial crops are spreading, especially in the southern regions and in the plains, making more and more use of modern systems of management of the funds. According to smber, the primary sector no longer plays the role of the leading sector of the economy, but its contribution remains above the average of other European countries. One third of the arable land is occupied by wheat, supplied mainly by the plains of Macedonia and Thrace; followed by barley, corn and, at an even greater distance, other cereals such as rice and oats. Much more relevant for commercial purposes, however, are tree crops, such as olives, vines and citrus fruits, all widely exported. Good quantities of wine are obtained from the grapes, some of which are very famous also abroad, but even more important are the raisins, which come mostly from the Ionian Islands, Crete and Samo, and of which Greece is the first exporter in the world. Cotton growing has had a particular increase; high tobacco production. Other main agricultural products include some oil plants (peanuts, sesame, sunflower), sugar beets and various fruit and vegetables: potatoes, tomatoes, onions, apples, pears, walnuts, figs, etc. The forest cover is very poor and occupies less than a fifth of the territorial surface; widespread is the Aleppo pine, used for the resin (useful for the production of rosin and essence of turpentine). The scarcity of good pastures limits the breeding of cattle; more numerous are the sheep and goats, for which poorer soils are sufficient, and poultry. Sufficiently developed is the sugar beets and various fruit and vegetable products: potatoes, tomatoes, onions, apples, pears, walnuts, figs, etc. The forest cover is very poor and occupies less than a fifth of the territorial surface; widespread is the Aleppo pine, used for the resin (useful for the production of rosin and essence of turpentine). The scarcity of good pastures limits the breeding of cattle; more numerous are the sheep and goats, for which poorer soils are sufficient, and poultry. Sufficiently developed is the sugar beets and various fruit and vegetable products: potatoes, tomatoes, onions, apples, pears, walnuts, figs, etc. The forest cover is very poor and occupies less than a fifth of the territorial surface; widespread is the Aleppo pine, used for the resin (useful for the production of rosin and essence of turpentine). The scarcity of good pastures limits the breeding of cattle; more numerous are the sheep and goats, for which poorer soils are sufficient, and poultry. Sufficiently developed is the cattle breeding; more numerous are the sheep and goats, for which poorer soils are sufficient, and poultry. Sufficiently developed is the cattle breeding; more numerous are the sheep and goats, for which poorer soils are sufficient, and poultry. Sufficiently developed is the beekeeping. In the fisheries sector, the Greek fleet took advantage of the European subsidies provided in the 1990s in order to modernize the fishing fleet. Greece is among the largest European producers of fish from aquaculture. On the contrary, relatively deficient, given the country’s geographical position, is the deep sea fishing sector. Compared to the past, the collection of sponges has also decreased.

ECONOMY: MINERAL RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY

The extractive industry contributes in a not very important part to the export volume of Greece. The minerals are numerous, but generally not abundant; however, Greece is among the world’s largest producers of perlite, bentonite, pozzolan and pumice stone, as well as a strong European producer of nickel, bauxite and magnesite. Lignite, iron ores, manganese, silver, zinc, chromite etc are also extracted; very precious is the emery of the island of Naxos and marbles have been famous since ancient times. The production of electricity is still scarce, mostly of thermal origin; in 2001 a submarine electrical connection between Greece and Italy came into operation by means of a cable laid on the bottom of the Otranto canal. Oil is extracted from two fields (Prinos fields) off the island of Thasos in northern Greece. The industrial sector is mostly made up of small businesses; the large factories were born mainly in the last years of the twentieth century. thanks to foreign investments. In the’ within the manufacturing industry, the most developed and efficient sectors are textiles, leather, food (wine industries, sugar mills, oil mills, canneries, breweries, etc.) and tobacco. A significant expansion was recorded by the chemical industries (fertilizers, sulfuric and nitric acid, caustic soda), petrochemical, electrical material, steel, lead metallurgy, aluminum and steel, rubber, paper and on the other hand, the mechanical industry appears to be more lacking in cement. The secondary sector is based on a large number of small firms and very few large corporations, whether state-owned or still controlled by family groups. sugar mills, oil mills, canneries, breweries, etc.) and tobacco. A significant expansion was recorded by the chemical industries (fertilizers, sulfuric and nitric acid, caustic soda), petrochemical, electrical material, steel, lead metallurgy, aluminum and steel, rubber, paper and on the other hand, the mechanical industry appears to be more lacking in cement. The secondary sector is based on a large number of small firms and very few large corporations, whether state-owned or still controlled by family groups. sugar mills, oil mills, canneries, breweries, etc.) and tobacco. A significant expansion was recorded by the chemical industries (fertilizers, sulfuric and nitric acid, caustic soda), petrochemical, electrical material, steel, lead metallurgy, aluminum and steel, rubber, paper and on the other hand, the mechanical industry appears to be more lacking in cement. The secondary sector is based on a large number of small firms and very few large corporations, whether state-owned or still controlled by family groups. on the other hand, the mechanical industry appears to be the most inadequate of aluminum and steel, rubber, paper and cement. The secondary sector is based on a large number of small firms and very few large corporations, whether state-owned or still controlled by family groups. on the other hand, the mechanical industry appears to be the most inadequate of aluminum and steel, rubber, paper and cement. The secondary sector is based on a large number of small firms and very few large corporations, whether state-owned or still controlled by family groups.

Greece Economy