The Algerian population with currently approx. 37 million residents (depending on the source and annual reference, slightly different numbers are used) is structured very heterogeneously. The proportion of Arabs is given as 70% and that of the Berber Kabyls as 30%, but the original population is non-Arab, and the current structure is the result of a process of mixing. The contrasts in consciousness and self-awareness are considerable. The Kabyls perceive themselves to be very different from the Algerian Arabs in terms of their culture and identity, but they are also differentiated in themselves, which is also true of the Algerian Arabs. This is how the Mzab region is used by the Mozabites inhabited, which are neither Kabyle nor Arabic, but belong to a particular Islamic movement (Kharijites).
Not only, but especially in this region, massive unrest has recently occurred over and over again due to the conflicts between Algerians of Arab and Mozabite origin, which reflect the social and ethnic heterogeneity of Algeria and make its future appear uncertain, which has led to great nervousness in the political establishment has led to allegations of conspiracy against foreign powers.
The population of Algeria is expected to grow to 50 million by 2050. The distribution of the population shows strong regional differences. Over 90% of the population is located in northern Algeria. The average population density in mid-2001 was 12.9 residents / km². The average life expectancy in 2010 was 70.3 years (2000: 68.5) for men at 68.8 and women at 71.8 years (depending on the source and annual terms, these figures differ slightly from one another, according to the CIA Factbook is life expectancy is currently almost 75 years).
The population growth in 2014 was 1.82%. A decrease (of growth) to 0.9% is expected by 2030. Almost 70% of the population are younger than 30 years. For the year 2000 the number of households was given as 4.7 million, the average number of people per household as 6.47. If you take this figure as a basis for the current population of 37 million people, you currently get over 5 million households. An increase to 12.5 million households with an average of 3.6 people each is expected for 2030.
Although there is neither hunger nor immediate need in Algeria, the situation is often felt to be leaden and hopeless. Esp. the quadrupling of the population since 1962 from 10 to over 40 million means that the prospects for the next generation have deteriorated. Therefore, now and in the future, significant refugee and migration movements are to be expected. Algeria has agreed to take back Algerian citizens who pretended to be Syrians in Germany, but it is unclear to what extent this intention has been implemented or whether the country is really interested in it. A significant part of the next generation will therefore look for and use migration opportunities for the foreseeable future.
Regions and regional disparities
According to franciscogardening, Algeria can be divided into four main regions: East, Center, West and South. Over 90% of the population live in the de facto northern regions of East, Center and West. The south is the largest geographically, but the smallest in terms of population. Therefore the south of Algeria – south of Ghardaia, about 500 km from Algiers to the south – is almost deserted. To the southern border in the direction of Mali and Niger it is at least 1500 km from there, which are largely uninhabited and are mainly used economically for oil and gas production or, to a limited extent, for desert tourism.
In the extreme south of Algeria, within reach of the borders with Mali and Niger, lies the southern metropolis of Tamarasset at an altitude of 1,400 meters in a pleasantly dry climate, whose population has grown from 50,000 to around 100,000 in the last 20 years. Tamanrasset is now an important logistics center for the Trans-Saharan traffic between Algeria and Niger. The city lies on the Transsahara route Algiers-In Salah-Tamanrasset-Agadez, part of the Algiers-Lagos Highway, which is part of the Trans-African Highways. The city has the best supply options in the region, several workshops for repairing motor vehicles and an airport. Sahara tourism is also very important for the city. It is a popular starting point for excursions to the neighboring Ahaggar Mountains, where eg the hermitage of the murdered Christian martyr Charles de Foucauld is popular.
The Touaregs living in the south of Algeria, unlike the Kabyls, are mostly not a noticeable foreign body in the Algerian state, but have come to terms with the Bouteflika regime without any particular enthusiasm. By building schools, medical facilities, electricity and water supply as well as tourism and smuggling, the worst deficiencies were eliminated and certain sources of income – including prosperity – created. However, there is sympathy for the Touareg rebellion in Mali and Niger; Individual Algerian Touaregs from the ranks of the Algerian army have switched to the side of the Malian rebels or support Salafist terror groups in order to weaken the central power and increase their own weight.